The cosmological revolution

Said or chanted together would be a word sound. This word sound can now be described as the Ankh Before I continue, I do want to make note that in many Quantum Physics discussions, the God Particle or the Higgs Boson Particle is associated with a sound.

The cosmological revolution

Cosmology is the scientific study of the universe as a unified whole, from its earliest moments through its evolution to its ultimate fate.

Immanuel Kant (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

The currently accepted cosmological model is the big bang. In this picture, the expansion of the universe started in an intense… The cosmological expansion When the universe is viewed in the large, a dramatic The cosmological revolution feature, not present on small scales, emerges—namely, the cosmological expansion.

On cosmological scales, galaxies or, at least, clusters of galaxies appear to be racing away from one another with the apparent velocity of recession being linearly proportional to the distance of the object. This relation is known as the Hubble law after its discoverer, the American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble.

Interpreted in the simplest fashion, the Hubble law implies that Strong scientific support for this interpretation of a big bang origin of the universe comes from the detection by radio telescopes of a steady and uniform background of microwave radiation.

The cosmic microwave background is believed to be a ghostly remnant of the fierce light of the primeval fireball reduced by cosmic expansion to a shadow of its former splendour but still pervading every corner of the known universe.

According to the evolutionary, or big bang, theory of the universe, the universe is expanding while the total energy and matter it contains remain constant.

Therefore, as the universe expands, the density of its energy and matter must become progressively thinner. At left is a two-dimensional representation of the universe as it appears now, with galaxies occupying a typical section of space.

At right, billions of years later the same amount of matter will fill a larger volume of space. The simple and most common interpretation of the Hubble law as a recession of the galaxies over time through space, however, contains a misleading notion.

In a sense, as The cosmological revolution be made more precise later in the article, the expansion of the universe represents not so much a fundamental motion of galaxies within a framework of absolute time and absolute space, but an expansion of time and space themselves.

On cosmological scales, the use of light-travel times to measure distances assumes a special significance because the lengths become so vast that even light, traveling at the fastest speed attainable by any physical entity, takes a significant fraction of the age of the universe Thus, when astronomers measure objects at cosmological distances from the Local Groupthey are seeing the objects as they existed during a time when the universe was much younger than it is today.

Under these circumstances, Albert Einstein taught in his theory of general relativity that the gravitational field of everything in the universe so warps space and time as to require a very careful reevaluation of quantities whose seemingly elementary natures are normally taken for granted.

The nature of space and time Finite or infinite? An issue that arises when one contemplates the universe at large is whether space and time are infinite or finite. After many centuries of thought by some of the best minds, humanity has still not arrived at conclusive answers to these questions.

Space must then itself also be finite because it is merely a receptacle for material bodies. On the other hand, the heavens must be temporally infinite, without beginning or end, since they are imperishable and cannot be created or destroyed. Except for the infinity of time, these views came to be accepted religious teachings in Europe before the period of modern science.

The most notable person to publicly express doubts about restricted space was the Italian philosopher-mathematician Giordano Brunowho asked the obvious question that, if there is a boundary or edge to space, what is on the other side?

The cosmological revolution

For his advocacy of an infinity of suns and earths, he was burned at the stake in In the German astronomer Johannes Kepler provided a profound reason for believing that the number of stars in the universe had to be finite. If there were an infinity of stars, he argued, then the sky would be completely filled with them and night would not be dark!

His discovery of the systematic recession of the galaxies provided an escape, however.

The cosmological revolution

At first people thought that the redshift effect alone would suffice to explain why the sky is dark at night—namely, that the light from the stars in distant galaxies would be redshifted to long wavelengths beyond the visible regime. The modern consensus is, however, that a finite age for the universe is a far more important effect.

Even if the universe is spatially infinite, photons from very distant galaxies simply do not have the time to travel to Earth because of the finite speed of light.

There is a spherical surface, the cosmic event horizon When one looks to great distances, one is seeing things as they were a long time ago, again because light takes a finite time to travel to Earth.

Over such great spans, do the classical notions of Euclid concerning the properties of space necessarily continue to hold? The answer given by Einstein was: And in Einstein presented a mathematical model of the universe in which the total volume of space was finite yet had no boundary or edge.

The model was based on his theory of general relativity that utilized a more generalized approach to geometry devised in the 19th century by the German mathematician Bernhard Riemann.

The first postulate is the relativity principle: The second postulate is the equivalence principle: Clearly, this second premise is incompatible with Euclidean and Newtonian precepts of absolute space and absolute time, resulting in a program that merged space and time into a single structure, with well-known consequences.LAURENCE REES: Why did the Nazis hate the Jews so much?

DAVID CESARANI: The Nazis weren’t the only people who hated Jews during the 20th Century, but they hated Jews in a different way to most other’s a long history of conflict between Judaism and Christianity, a millennia of conflict.

There’s also a long history of conflict between Jews and non-Jews because of the social. Cosmological Revolution What was the cosmological revolution? This is the debate about the structure of the universe. Why was there a cosmological revolution The churches control on ideas was breaking down.

There was a new interest in learning, including the study of astronomy and science. Reading through "The Forgotten Revolution", time and again I found myself amazed at the sophistication of Hellenistic science.

This book is a treasure trove for anyone interested in ancient thought, science history, or the waxing and waning of intellectual life in the West.

Revolution and Ritual: The Photographs of Sara Castrejón, Graciela Iturbide and Tatiana Parcero Closes Sun., Jan. 7, at 5 pm. ABOUT THE EXHIBITION: War, indigenous cultures and inner transformation ferment in Revolution and Ritual: The Photographs of Sara Castrejón, Graciela Iturbide and Tatiana Parcero, at the Ruth Chandler Williamson Gallery of Scripps College through Jan.

7, Lecture The Scientific Revolution, Why then do we hesitate to grant [the Earth] the motion which accords naturally with its form, rather than attribute a movement to the entire universe whose limit we do not and cannot know? This sequel to the highly acclaimed Cosmos and Anthropos demonstrates the impact on social, ethical, and theological doctrines of the twentieth-century scientific revolution.

Philosophical Dictionary: Copernicus-Cynicism